Friday, January 24, 2014

Efficiency Parameter of Malt Distillery

                                               Jaipal Singh Datta  likes Beer
Efficiency Parameters of any unit are very important to convert that unit in to profit or loss.
One of the leading distillery in India near Goa is producing malt spirit with these parameters.

Consumption per Proof Liter
Yield per Metric Tonne of Malt   560 to 570 PL
1.0   Malt         1.8 Kg / PL
2.0   Coal         2.2 Kg / PL
3.0   Electricity    0.46 KWh / PL
4.0  Water          13 Liter / PL
5.0  Man Days       35.5 Days /1000 PL
Operation of Pot Still and Patent Still after fermentation of distillery wort and removal of alcohol by distillation from wash etc are the main job of distiller. His job depends on improvement of efficiency parameter of distillery small or big.

To improve efficiency of distillery one checks quality of yeast, temperatures, boiler efficiency, condensate collection, pressure reducing station for steam, crushing of Malt by milling machine,

Spirit is stored in barrels of virgin oak wood from Europe, America and even from India which are more porous. Distiller selects each barrel very carefully and blends his spirit from each barrel to produce Whiskey of uniform quality.

Costing of Packing Material in Rs
Brand 1 to 5                         Quart               Pints                   Nips
Empty Bottle                     125 to 160       153  to 171         128 to 153
PP Seal                               12 to 16           14 to 30              18  to  50
Labels                                  3   to  15         4  to 18                 10 to 50
Outer Carton                      17  to 27           25 to 30                 25 to 30
Mono Carton                       70 to 102  
Cost varies due to quality of bottle, size, weight in grams, PP Seal size, Guala Cap, Labels thickness, printing on labels and number of colours, size etc.
Cost of Spirit varies from 43 Rs to 50 considering quality and purity of Alcohol. It includes export fee of one state, import fee of other state, freight etc.
Flavouring material is added as per blender formula. It may cost from 20 Rs to 100 Rs / case
Cost of over head varies as per production / sales of individual units.  It may vary from Rs 40 per case to Rs 100 per case depending on the efficiency of Management.
Cost of conversion is charged by individual bottlers from 25 Rs to 40 Rs / case.
In IMFL Bottling units, there are many variations due to different sizes of bottles and size of neck for PP Seals. Inventory management is not very easy in comparison to other production units.
In many cases whiskey is filled in semi automatic plants, where quarts can be filled 1000 cases per line of Quarts. In case of Pints it may be 600 cases and in case of Nips it may be 350 cases per line.
                                                   Quart           Pints        Nips
Bottle capacity in ml                       750            375          180
Number of bottles per case              12             24             48
Bulk Liter                                         9               9             8.64 
If Alcohol is 42.8% V/V = 25 Degree Under Proof = 75 Degree Proof
than each outer carton contains
             Alcohol / case                  3.852      3.852        3.69792
               PL / Case                        6.75        6.75
Calculation in distillery is done on the basis of Alcohol Liter or AL. Earlier these calculations are done on the basis of Proof Liter ( PL ) or Over Proof (OP) or Under Proof (UP)
Some states add Bottling Fee, Excise Duty, Sales Tax etc

Thursday, October 11, 2007

Jaipal Singh Datta 1


Fuel Ethanol

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is a clear, colorless liquid with a Characteristic, agreeable odor. In dilute aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more concentrated solutions it has a burning taste. Ethanol (C2H5OH) is a group of chemical compounds whose molecules contain a hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon atom. The history of ethanol as a fuel dates back to the early days of the automobile. However, cheap petrol (gasoline) quickly replaced ethanol as the fuel of combustion, and it was not until the late 1970s, when the Brazilian government launched their “Pro-alcohol” policy, that ethanol made a come back to the market place. Today, fuel ethanol accounts for roughly two third of World ethyl alcohol production.
Fermentation, one of the oldest chemical processes known to man, is used to make a variety of products, including fuel, foods, flavoring, beverage, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. Fermentation of any material that contains sugar or compounds that can be converted to sugar can produce ethanol. The varied raw materials used in the manufacture of ethanol via fermentation are classified under three types of agricultural raw materials: sugar, starch, and cellulose materials. Sugars (sugar cane, sugar beets, molasses, or fruit) can be converted to ethanol directly. Starches (from grains, potatoes, or root crops) must first be hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars by the action of enzymes from malt or moulds. Cellulose (from wood, agricultural residues, or waste sulfite liquor from pulp and paper mills) must also be converted to sugars, generally by the action of mineral acids. Once simple sugars are formed, enzymes from yeast can readily ferment them to ethanol.

Distilleries In India and addreses

In India, Ethanol is produced by fermentation of sugars present in the Molasses using Yeast. 95.5% ethanol with 4.5% water mixture (Azeotropic Composition) called “ Rectified Spirit “ is produced from the fermented Molasses containing 7% to 8% Ethanol in simple Distillation Process. The rectified spirit is dehydrated to produce Absolute Ethanol( Fuel Ethanol) suitable for blending with petrol and Diesel. Dehydration of Rectified Spirit to produce Absolute Ethanol is done by one of the two routes either ‘azeotropic distillation” or “ pressure swing adsorption”. In azeotropic distillation, held of another substances called “entrainer” like hexane, is taken for removal of water. In pressure swing adsorption, water is removed by adsorbing on surface of ‘ molecular sieves” and then cyclically removing it under different conditions.

The zeolites or molecular Sieves, which are natural or synthetic aluminium silicates with a very regular, fine pore structure, are especially effective in preparing gases with low dew points. Adsorption on Molecular sieves can also be used to separate Ethanol and water to prepare pure ethanol. This ethanol can be used as on Oxygenate in Petrol or Diesel.

Although adsorption is most often used as purification process to remove small amounts of materials, a number of applications involve separation of gas mixtures with moderate to high concentration of Adsorbates. Pressure swing adsorption is a Bulk separation process that is used in petrochemical Industries like Alcohol Industries, Small Scale air separation Plants, etc.

The basic principle of Dehydration by Adsorption were developed and were well understood more than five decades ago, but commercial practice in the fuel Alcohol Industry began about 20 years ago.

Initially the molecular sieves were used to dehydrate the hydrous ethanol in liquid phase. The process operated at ambient temperature and required high temperature under inert atmosphere for re-generation of molecular sieves. Due to wide thermal cycling and high shocks the bed life was quite low.

The turning point came with the use of vapor phase dehydration of ethanol by using molecular sieves. In this process the beds were held at a constant temperature, while the adsorption of water from ethanol stream was achieved under pressure and regeneration was accomplished by applying vacuum to the beds. The systems are called pressure swing adsorption systems. This prevented the thermal shocks and appreciably extended the molecular sieve bed life.

The molecular sieve based pressure swing Adsorption dehydration systems have been operating the world over with no replacement of Molecular Sieve material for over a decade now.
Presently, optimization of technology with proper heat recovery and lean phase recycling has unquestionably positioned molecular sieves as superior to Ternary Azeotrope dehydration for fuel ethanol production.

Fuel Ethanol could be blended in various proportions in Petrol usually 5 to 10% by volume. In Brazil, ethanol is added 24% by volume in gasoline (petrol). In U.S.A. Ethanol E10 ( absolute ethanol 10% by volume) and ethanol E 85 (absolute ethanol 85% by volume) are popular in flexible fuel vehicles which can run on either gasoline or ethanol.

Fuel Ethanol can be used as on Oxygenate in Petrol. It reduces emission of carbon monoxide by taking combustion to completion. It replaces tetraethyl lead or MTBE, from contaminating surface water. Ethanol maintains the ‘carbon cycle’ of nature, reducing the ‘greenhouse effect’. It is made from renewable sources of material like agricultural products., etc., molasses and prevents depletion of limited sources like fossil fuels. It employees renewable source of energy through a natural route and it reduces dependents on imported crude.

As concerns about our nation’s dependence on foreign oil increase, and awareness on environmental impacts of petroleum increases, the interest in alternative fuels like ethanol is emerging. In many ways ethanol is an ideal transportation fuel. It’s better for the environment than petroleum, it is domestically produced, and its use supports farmers and rural economies. By switching to ethanol fuels and advanced vehicle technologies, fleet owners are leading the way to both energy security and cleaner air.

The specifications of fuel grade ethanol for blending in petrol is defined as per ASTM D 4806 as follows:

Water content, Max., Mass % 1.25

Non-volatile matter, max., mg/100 ml 5

Chloride ion content, max mg/l 32

Acidity (as acetic acid, CH3COOH), max.,Mass% (mg/l) 0.007(56)

The oil companies in India have decided to have the blending units located region wise instead of centralizing at the refinery itself for optimizing transportation cost of petrol. Since the project is located at Salempur, which is about 40 kms from Mathura where the nearest refinery is available, irrespective of locating the blending units at region wise or at refinery , the transportation cost will be minimal.

The fuel ethanol manufacturing is a sunrise industry with an excellent potential for growth as it is being introduced first time in India. In U.S.A. and Brazil fuel ethanol is in use for over 20 years and proven technology is already available. Being one of the first unit to start the manufacturing of fuel ethanol MML will be have the momentum of early start. The promoters have rich experience in project management of projects having outlay over 100 crores. They also have experience in managing Distilleries for over 100 years and hence MML have decided to go in for this project.

India is the second-largest producer of ethanol in Asia. Installed annual production capacity is around 2.7 million Liters, but utilizations as fuel is nil. The major feedstock is molasses and the industry regularly utilizes 54 million tones per year of the total molasses produced. About 50% of the ethyl alcohol produced is destined for the production of spirits, while the other half is consumed by a large Alco-chemical industry for the manufacture of a wide variety of products.


MML’s fuel ethanol project, a green field project first of its kind in Uttar Pradesh, having an installed capacity of 100 KLD of fuel ethanol using state of the art technology of “ PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION” on surface of Molecular Sieves developed in U.S.A and 100KLD of Potable Alcohol .

The fuel ethanol and poatable alcohol project mainly consists of continuous fermentation with Yeast recycling, Continuous Distillation and Molecular Sieves bed Adsorption Plant along with the required utilities such as Steam boiler, Turbo Alternator, Power Supply Distribution along with necessary transformers, Cooling Towers, etc.
The project also envisages installation of Effluent Treatment Plant using latest technology of bio-Methanation Process followed by Organic Manure Production using Sugar Mill Press Mud in the Bio-composting process.

The plant requires about 1.05 Lac tons of Molasses per annum during the first year of operation (PLF 75%) and 1.4 Lac tones molasses per annum there after for 100 KLD project of Ethanl and 1.4 Lac tones mollases for Potable alcohol.. Uttar Pradesh is surplus in Molasses. Availability as they have 700 to 800 lac tones of Cane Crushing Capacity which in turn make available 28 to29 lac tones of Molasses per annum. Annexure enclosed indicating sugar , molasses , press mud production in different years in Uttar Pradesh and in India.

The plant is projected to operational for the period of 330 days in a year and 35 days are ear marked for normal maintenance. Molasses availability being seasonal in nature adequate provision made in project cost for storage of 50000 tonnes of Molasses which is about two month requirements.

The proposed technology of continuous Fermentation with yeast recycling will give higher fermentation efficiency compared to the conventional batch fermentation process resulting to higher yield of ethanol.

The Distillation Plant uses latest design for distillation which will optimize energy usage and minimize the wastage/losses in production of Ethanol.

The dehyderation of ethanol used to be carried out by azeotropic distillation using cyclo hexane, benzene etc. as entrainer medium. However the present project proposed to use the latest technology of selective adsorption by Molecular Sieves which is highly energy efficient, the process loss is minimal and simple to operate as the process is entirely automated. Further there is no use of entrainers like Benzene etc., which are known carcinogenic.

The proposed project requires an implementation period of 16 months from zero date.

Production of Absolute Ethanol (Fuel Ethanol) involves the fermentation of sugars present in the Molasses using Yeast Distillation of Fermented Molasses to produce Rectified Spirit and Dehydration of Rectified Spirit using Molecular Sieves to produce ”Absolute Ethanol”.

Yeast Seed material is prepared in water cooled yeast vessels by inoculating molasses with yeast. The contents of the yeast vessel are then transferred to the Yeast activation vessel. The purpose of aerated yeast activation in the yeast activation vessel is to allow time for the yeast cell multiplication.

The purpose of fermentation is to convert the fermentable sugars into Ethanol. During Fermentation, sugars are broken down into Ethanol and carbon-di-oxided Significant heat release take place during fermentation. However the fermentation temperature is maintained by forced re-circulation heat exchangers.

At the end of fermentation, the wash is fed through a yeast separator where the yeast cream is separated, acidified in the yeast treatment tank and returned to the yeast activation vessel for activation. Sludge is separated in a sludge decanter. The clear wash from both the yeast separator and sludge separator flows to the clarified wash tank. The wash is then pumped to Distillation.

Fermented Wash with about 7% v/v Ethanol is preheated in two stages i.e. in the Beer heater using Rectified vapours and then in the Fermented Wash PHE using effluent. The preheated wash is then fed to the Degassifying Column to remove residual Co2 and volatiles.

The wash then flow down to Analyser Column which acts as total stripper. The Ethanol water vapour mixture which rises upward in this column is fed to the Rectified Column. The spent wash which is devoid of Ethanol flows down the Analyser Column for suitable treatment.

The Ethanol vapours are concentrated in the Rectifier Column to produce Rectified Spirit of 95% v/v strength.

Higher boiling impurities, which are formed during fermentation, are removed by taking side draw purges to a decanter from the rectifier Column. This avoids Fusel Oil build up in the column and subsequently in the product. A trace stream of spirit is drawn off as impure spirit (about 2% of Plant capacity) to remove the concentrated volatile compounds. The high grade Rectified Sprit is taken as a draw from the upper trays of the Rectified Column.

Conventional Fermentation Plant operates in a batch mode with a series of Fermenters.
The recent development in Fermentation Technology is using Continuous Fermentation System with yeast recycle using centrifuges ( yeast separators) to achieve higher fermentation efficiencies.

Cascade Continuous fermentation using 3 to 5 Nos. Fermenters in series technology is being offered by M/s. Praj Industries Ltd. Pune.

Single Fermenter Continuous Fermentation System using Yeast Recycling is being offered by ‘ Alfa Laval Pune based on Alfa Laval Sweden- Biostill Technology.

Continuous Distillation Plant to produce Rectified Spirit from the Fermented Molasses are also offered by the Indian Suppliers.

Absolute Ethanol Production Plants using Molecular Sieve Technology are offered by ALFA LAVAL, PUNE in Collaboration with M /s KATZEN INTERNATIONAL LTD. PUNE in collaboration with DELTA T CORPN., USA.

The Anhydrous Ethanol Production Process drives the Rectified Spirit (95% v/v Alcohol through a bed of desiccant beads ( Molecular Sieves) to allow for bead regeneration in continuous operation, twin beds are provided of which one is in dehydration mode while the other is regenerating. Depending on feed and production specifications, the dehydration- regeneration exchange takes place approximately every few minutes. As the regeneration process release the adsorbed water together with contained Ethanol, it is recycled back to regeneration column for re-processing.

The power and steam for the project will be utilized form the Independent Bio-mass based Power Plant proposed to be installed adjacent to the Fuel Ethanol Project.

There will be a generation of about 1200-1700 m3 per day of Distillery Spent Wash as effluent to be treated suitably for disposal for 100 KLD Plant. Distillery Spent Wash is a waste water high inorganic Compounds and is excellent source for Biogas Generation through anaerobic Digestor. Distillery Effluent will be treated in a Primary Treatment Plant generating Biogas which will be utilized as “Fuel” in the Boiler and the Primary Treated Effluent will be utilized for production of ”Organic Manure” using Sugar Mill Press Mud (Bio-composting). Part of the treated effluent will be utilized with suitable dilution as Liquid Manure for the Agricultural operations.


The proposed fuel ethanol project will be located at Salempur Industrial Area in U.P.S.I.D.C in the State of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 15 Km from Sikendera rao chaurastha towards Hathras Junction. Sikendera rao chaurastha is located on Delhi Kanpur Road after Aligarh from Delhi on State Highway no. 22. Salempur is located on State Highway no. 33 , which is joining Mathura to Secunderabad rao over Hathras Junction .The plant will have an installed capacity of 100 KLPD of absolute alcohol and 100KLPD for ENA. Hathras District is an agricultural belt mainly producing Rose plants , paddy, Wheat ,Mangoes etc. There is one LPG Gas filling bottling station of Bharat Petroleum Gas 2 km from the site and Salempur Police check post adjacent to our land. Photocopy of site plan enclosed.
Nearest Railway Station is Hathras Junction on Broadway Gauge between Delhi and Kanpur Railway station. On Meter gauge there is railway station adjacent to our site.
It is in Salempur village in Secundera Rao tehsil and newly formed District Hathras.
We shall be transporting Molasses and Press Mud from sugar factories from Western and Eastern U.P. We are very near to Mathura refinery, a bulk purchaser of Ethanol .
See Annexure of molasses production in West and East Uttar Pradesh in U.P.

The following features of the site are discussed in detail:

Availability of adequate and suitable land for locating the project.
Topographical and geological consideration of the site.
Availability of adequate quantity of water for meeting the plant’s water requirement.
Availability of adequate raw material and its transport.
Ecological Impact of the project.
Nearness to the Railway station and Airport.

The ground water survey is being carried out. Preliminary report confirms abundant availability of ground water in the region as the area is endowed with 100 cms of rainfall per annum.

The land for the project has already been identified and acquisition is taken. The Project requires license from the Government of India and the same have already been obtained. Necessary application for Pollution Control Board clearance and clearance from State Excise department have been made. The process of awarding the same are in final stages of clearance as necessary requirements have been duly complied with.

Availabillity of adequate and suitable land for locating the project:-

MML have identified 850 Acres of land at Salempur Industrial Area in District Hathras. The major raw material for the project, Molasses, a seasonal product from sugar industry, is four times voluminous than the fuel ethanol, the finished product. The freight cost on raw material a recurring expenditure needs to be optimized to have benefits of project location. Further, locating a fuel ethanol project near to the blending center will have on transportation cost of finished product as well as easy and immediate availability to the customer can be ensured.
Hathras being a agricultural belt, it will be more convenient to dispose the treated effluent to the sugar beat fields as they have rich minerals which are essential for soil enrichment. The proposed effluent treatment method of bio-compositing requires large quantity of press mud, a by-product of sugar industry. By locating a fuel ethanol project near sugar producing centers will ensure smooth availability as well as substantial cost reduction in treating effluent disposed by the unit.
Salempur is about 170 Kms. from Delhi, where the petroleum companies have proposal to locate their blending units. (Consuming center for fuel ethanol). With a radius of 350 Kms from the project site there are many sugar mills which will be the sources for molasses, press mud and their command areas as consuming centers for Organic manure produced out of effluent generated by the project.
In view of the above inherent advantages available it has been proposed to locate the project at Salempur UPSIDC Dist. Hathras.


The plant area is generally plain terrain. The soil bearing capacity is about 20 Metric tones per sq. m. at a depth of about 1.5 meters.

Availability of Rail and Road connection for material movements:-

The nearest railway station on meter gauge is Salempur adjacent to site and nearest railway station on broad gauge is Hathras junction ,which is around 15 km from project site.
The National Highway (NH8) between Delhi and Mathura is about 25 Kms from the project site. The NH 8 is connected by well maintained tar toped roads
State high way no. 33 is passing through our site. 850 Acres land is located on north of the road and 100 acres of land is located on south of the road. 100 acres of land is situated between State High way no. 33 and Meter gauge railway line. Rati ka Nagla railway station is very adjacent to this land. This railway line connects Mathura and Kasgunj.

Availability of adequate quantity of water for meeting the plant’s water requirement:-

The estimated daily requirement of Raw Water is about 4000 M3 for the 100KLD Ethanol Plant and 60 KLD Extra Neutral Alcohol .Following quantity of water is required :-
i) Process Water 2340 M3/ Day

ii) Soft water for Boiler 570 M3/ Day

iii Cooling Tower Makeup 700 M3/ Day

iv Wash water 320 M3 / Day

v) Floor Washing 25 M3 / Day

Bore wells and open well are located at appropriate places to meet the entire water requirements of the plant. The place is endowed with plenty of ground water in view of the Yamuna River flowing within about 20 Kilometer from the project site. Rajwaha is located adjacent to our land.

Availability of adequate raw material and its transport :

India is the largest producer of Sugar in the world with 436 Sugar Mills in operation of which 281 are in cooperative sector.
Sugar Industry is the second largest Agro Industry in India.
Total carry over of Sugar Stock 118 Lacs MT at the end of 2000-01.
High operational cost , low utilization of installed capacity , high cost of conversion , Low market realization of Sugar are problems of Sugar Industry. This is affecting Sugar Cane farmers and Indian economy.
Considering the above it is essential to start Ethanol Project.
Planned off take is 300 Million Litres by April and U.P. could supply 10 Million Litres Maharashtra 3.8 Million Litres and Karnataka 0.2 Million Litres.

With a radius of 35 Kms from the project site there are about 6 sugar mills which will be the sources for molasses. The molasses can be transported by road which is usual mode of transport in that locality.

Further, about 2 to 3 lacs tones of surplus molasses per annum from Uttar Pradesh are exported to other states. Hence there will be adequate raw material for the project.
Ecological Impact of the project:-
The plant design have been finalized in such a way as to take care of Ecological impact of the project on the environment and suitable safe guards have been provided. This has been explained in detail else where in the project report.

Nearness to the Seaport and Airport :-
The Mumbai Sea Port and Delhi International Airport area are about 1200 and150 Kms from salamepur respectively. The road between the project site and sea port/air port are well connected by National Highway (NH8)


India is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and has vast potential top produce fuel ethanol, which would drastically reduce air pollution and imports of petroleum products. Currently, Indian Sugar industry faces an uncertain future as (i) the stocks are mounting, (ii) exports are not very attractive and (iii) operating margins are narrow. The Indian distillery industry, which has an installed capacity of over 2.8 billion litres, operates only at 50% capacity.

With sugarcane output touching 300 million tones and poised to expand at about 5 percent per annum over the next few years, molasses availability is not an issue at all. After meeting the projected domestic consumption of about 1,240 millions litres (for alcohol and chemical industries), there can result surplus of over 700 million litres for use as fuel.

The subject of producing alcohol has always been of considerable interest to several tropical countries, but until the oil crisis of 1973, other than Brazil, only India appeared to appreciate the importance of fermentation alcohol as a strategic material in its economy. Ethanol priced in India have been maintained at an extremely low level by processing cane molasses, which has been a waste product of negligible value.

India is the largest producer of sugar in the World with over 4 million hectares of land on sugar cultivation, over 325 million tons of sugar cane production and 180 million tons going to sugar factories, and over 20 million tons of sugar production.
It is estimated that 3-4 Million tons of sugar shall be surplus in 2006-07.
It is to be noted that the season period of the distillers will depend on the sugar season, which is around 180 days though the distilleries will run further using the purchased or stored molasses.

Ethanol is yet to be used as fuel in India. The possible surplus of Ethanol for use as fuel is summarized below :

Molasses production in 2001-2002 8.1 million tones

Yield of Ethanol from Molasses 2000 million litres

Ethanol consumption for alcohol

Based Chemical Industries 1240 million tones.

Surplus of Ethanol for use as fuel 780 million litres

The Bureau of Indian Standard has specified the use of Ethanol up to 5% in petrol blend in vehicles without incorporating any engine modification. Under the present consumption pattern for both petrol and diesel, there is a 4000 million litres ethanol substitution potential annually. As against this, the availability of ethanol would be far less, unless alternative sources of ethanol is pursued like cane juice, agro wastes, and others.
Uttar Pradesh
Sugar Year cane Crushing Molasses Production lac
Lac Ton Ton

1997-1998 330 15.25
1998-1999 350 16.64
1999-2000 442 19.90
2000-2001 493 22.20
2001-2002 600 27.00
Annual Cane Crushing Capacity : 600- 800 Lac Ton
Molasses Production 28 to29 Lac Tons
Present Offtake by existing Distilleries : 15Lac Tons
Annual Consumption of Petrol in Uttar Pradesh 8500 lac Tons
Surplus alcohol for fuel:-
Year Sugar Molasses Potential Projected Surplus
Prod. Prod. In Alcohol Alcohol Alcohol
Prod. Consump. For Fuel
1999-00 41.69 19.99 1569 1193 376
2000-01 46.83 22.20 1652 1240 412
2001-02 57.60 27.25 1739 1290 449
Source- Ethanol 2000 conference.

Techonology & Manufacturing Process


Molasses is the raw material used for production of alcohol. Molasses contains about 50% total reducing sugars, and during the fermentation, yeast strains of the species sacchardmyces cerevisiae converts sugars present in the molasses to ethyl alcohol.

For bringing out above biochemical reaction, we require proper and careful handling of yeast, optimum parameters like pH and temperature control and substrate concentration, which results into effective conversion of sugars to alcohol. Initially yeast is developed in the laboratory from the single cell yeast culture. In the laboratory, yeast is propagated in a test tube on 10ml. Then it is transferred to a bigger flask of 500ml. are transferred to 5 litre flask containing the sterilized molasses solution. It is necessary to adjust the pH of the molasses solution in the range of 4.5 to 5.0 and add necessary nutrients such as ammonium sulphate or urea Di - ammonium phosphate etc at each stage of development of yeast from 10 ml. to 500 ml. and from 500 ml to 5 litres and 5000 litres.

All these equipments are designed so as to facilitate boiling of molasses solution, in order to sterilize it and also cooling to bring it to the proper temperature of 33 Degree C and letting in culture and taking out culture. Boiling, cooling, introducing culture etc. are done in aseptic manner, i.e. keeping the fermentation medium free from any kind of infection. Further, stages of yeast propagation are done in open tanks, i.e. pre-Fermenter requires about 8 hours in order to build up necessary concentration of yeast in them. Finally, pre- Fermenter is emptied in an empty Fermenter, which is previously cleaned and kept ready. Dilute molasses solution is allowed to flow in this Fermenter so as to fill it to its working capacity, say about one- lakh litres.

Now a days, ready made compressed yeast used directly in the pre-Fermenter. Good quality of yeast is available for use in distillery. The yeast is manufactured under strict controlled conditions. This yeast is useful to obtain a good yield of alcohol by fermentation of molasses. The stage of yeast propagation as described above for producing yeast from laboratory scale to pre-fermentation stage may be totally eliminated. The fermentation of molasses in Fermenter take about 24 top 36 hours for completely exhausting the sugars in molasses.

The average efficiency of conversion of sugars in molasses to alcohol is 85 to 90% of theoretical value. All the sugars are not converted to alcohol during the process or fermentation because chemicals like glycerine; succinia acid, etc. are also produced by yeast during their metabolic process. Therefore, it is not possible to have 100% efficiency of conversion of sugars to alcohol.
The average yield of alcohol from molasses is about 250 Liters from 1 MT. of molasses containing 45% total fermentable sugars.

Distillation :-
The next stage in the manufacture of alcohol is to separate alcohol from fermented wash and to concentrate it to 95% alcohol called as rectified spirit (RS). For this purposed, method of distillation is employed. This system consists of the following equipments:-
Wash column
Degasifying column
Heads concentration column
Rectification column
Exhaust column.
The distillation column consists number of bubble-cap plates where wash is boiled and alcoholic vapors are separated and concentrated on each plate, stage by stage.

The fermented wash first enters the beer heater, which is a condenser for condensing alcoholic vapors by using wash as a cooling medium. The object of this beer heater is to recover the heat from the hot vapors of alcohol. Wash from the beer heater goes to the degasifying column top plate. The purpose of this column is to get rid of foul gases dissolved in the wash. The wash from the degasifying column bottom goes to top plate of the wash column. The steam is admitted through the steam sparger situated at the bottom of the column. As the steam rises up, the wash descending from the top of the column gets heated stripping the alcohol contained in it and by the time it reaches to bottom plate, it contains practically no alcohol.

The wash going out is called spent wash, which is discharged through the drain pipe. The vapours coming from wash column now consists approximately 50% alcohol and 50% water with impurities such as higher alcohols, aldehydes, acids, sulphurdi –oxide etc. Part of these vapors are led to purification column where low boiling impurities are separated from spirit which is produced at the rate of 5 to 10% of total production depending on the extent of purity required and stored separately.
Other portion of the vapors, which is a major quantity , is let to rectifying column. This column consists of 52 plates, which help the removal of bad smelling fusel oil, which is a mixture of higher alcohols. As the vapors coming form wash column rise to the top of rectifying column., the concentration of alcohol goes on increasing and finally it reaches a concentration of 95.5% alcohol .The alcoholic vapors from rectifying columns are condensed in the beer heater, principle condenser using water as coolant and finally vent condenser. The condensates of all the three condensers go back to the top of the rectifying column and uncondensed gasses are let out from vent pipe. Actually product of rectified spirit is drawn from the 3rd plate from the tope and cold in alcohol cooler and taken out as product.

The fusel oil, which is a mixture of higher alcohol, is drawn from the 6th to 10th plate from bottom of rectifying column as a stream of vapors. It is condensed and cooled and let into a decanter where it is mixed with water. Fusel oil being immiscible with water at the top and is decanted through a tunnel and sent to storage. The portion contains water and alcohol and is sent to back to wash column for recovery of alcohol. Fusel oil is recovered at the rate of 0.2% of alcohol produced. The alcohol, both pure and impure is first led into separate receivers. The quantity of alcohol produced is assessed daily in the receiver and it is finally transferred to storage vats in the warehouse.

Development in Alcohol fermentation technology-

Continuous Process.
Interesting development have taken place in the field of technology of fermentation of alcohol, which promise high yield of alcohol, economy in space, economy in steam consumption and sizeable reduction of quality of effluent. Considerable research and development in the continuous process for industrial fermentation have taken place and the processes have been perfected to make them viable. Continuous process for alcoholic fermentation is now commercialized. This has been possible for the outstanding research and development work carried in Russia, Sweden, Austria and USA etc. Many process have been patented.

There are variations in different processes of continuous fermentations.
Some use only single Fermenter, whereas some use two Fermenter or battery of Fermenter. For example, US patent, 4,310,629 incorporate use of two Fermenter. The first fermented favors rapid cell growth and the second Fermenter favors high rate of fermentation. Yeast is recycled. The alcohol content in first Fermenter is limited to not more than 4-6% w/w and alcohol content in second Fermenter attained is 12% w/w. Stillage containing soluble proteins and amino acids provide excellent source of nutrients for yeast propagation. The continuous fermentation process involves addition of fresh nutrient medium either continuously or intermittently withdrawal of portion of nutrient for recovery of fermentation products. In continuous process Fermenter is in constant usage with little shut down and after initial inoculation of yeast culture, further inoculation is not necessary.

In high Brix single stage continuous fermentation method only one Fermenter is used and it is kept in continuous operation by balancing the input and output of nutrient solution (wort) and harvested yeast culture respectively. Different technologies are
classified as
(1) Cascade continuous fermentation
(2) Single Fermenter continuous fermentation with yeast separators.

Multicont process

M/s Vogel Busch is a subsidiary of Voest-Alipine Montan AG,the greatest enterprise in Austria. M/s. Praj Industries Limited, Pune, represents them. They supply complete plants for the fermentation industry. Their cascade process is for continuous production of alcohol from sugar containing raw materials. The process developed by them for continuous fermentation is adopted for production of alcohol from molasses successfully is several countries.
Biostil Process:-
Another process developed for continuous fermentation is Biostil process, patented by Alfa Laval of Sweden. It has some special features. It is very comprehensive and compact process aimed at not only high yield of alcohol but reduction of effluent volume by 65%. In this process, concentrated substrate of 40-45% of final molasses is fed to a single fermenter at a constant flow rate. The process does not involve pre treatment or pasteurization of molasses. It envisages recycling of stillage to the extent of 70% of total volume in order to eliminate bacterial infection. The whole fermentation is carried continuously in one single fermenter.

Molasses wort is fed at such a rate the sugar percentage remains below 0.12% w/w. Ethanol concentration is controlled at 5 to 6% w/w special kind of yeast known as saccharomycs probe is used in the process. The yeast propagates by splitting and not by budding. It stands high osmotic pressure. The process requires yeast propagation vessels, nutrient tanks and pumps, yeast separators, hydrocyclones, carbon dioxide scrubber to recover alcohol and efficient plate heat exchangers for cooling recycled stillage and for fermenting wash. The distillation system differs from the conventional process as far as wash column is concerned. Other equipments are same as conventional plant.
The wash column is divided into two section

1.vapourizer and


The wash in yeast and also freed from sludge by yeast separators of suitable design, as the wash is pumped from Fermenter to wash feed tank, the wash is heated by plate heat exchanger and out going stillage. It enters the top plate of vaporizing section of wash column The wash is boiled by vapor coming up from stiper section. About 90% of ethanol is removed from the top through vapor pipe of the column. The concentration of alcohol, in the vapor is approx. 50% v/v about
70% of weak wash pumped from the bottom of vaporizer through the regeneration heat exchanger to return to the Fermenter via a trim cooler in the from of heat exchangers.
A minor stream of 30% remaining weak wash flows to another section of distillation column called as stripping column. This column is heated by reboiler instead of heating by steam sparger employed in conventional plant. The vapor going out consisting of steam and weak ethanol enters the bottom of vaporizer and provides heat necessary for boiling the wash. The spent wash leaving the column is free from alcohol and is concentrated to 25% solids. The duel purpose of this column heated by reboiler for evaporation and distillation lead to the highest possible stillage concentration without increase in steam consumption. The recycling of spent wash for dilution of molasses is a novel idea in this technique. This is useful to increase soluble salt concentration for optimum osmotic pressure,
which is necessary to limit the growth of fermentation organisms yeast with out affecting the rate of fermentation and eliminate contamination.

The Biostill process appears to be robust as far as high yield of Alcohol is concerned. The cascade system is rather sensitive to quality of molasses and water and also to temperature control. There is another system of cascade type continuous fermentation process, which does not require costly yeast separators. The alcohol yield is rather less by 10 to 15 litres per tonne of molasses as compared 280 litres per tonne of molasses obtained from yeast recycling system of continuous fermentation. The change over from conventional batch process to continuous process of fermentation is an appropriate step towards modernization and updating of technology of alcohol production for efficient performance. Though initial cost of plant and machinery of continuous fermentation is high the quantity of alcohol produced and profits earned are appreciably much higher. The pay back period is hardly 3-4 years. The adoption of continuous process is imperative when raw material is scarce.


There are two basic processes used for the manufacture of anhydrous ethanol from rectified spirit namely molecular sieve and azeotropic distillation. Both the processes are detailed below:-
The factors used to establish the design basis for the vapour phase Molecular Sieve based Dehydration System for Fuel GradesEthanol, are as follows :-
Anhydrous Alcohol production,
Liters/day 1,00,000
Product Quality, % v/v 99.8 mm
Feedstock Rectified Spirit (RS)
Feedsock quality, RS Meeting to IS Specification
Process Description
94.68% V/V,mm.
From feed tank, Rectified Sprit is pumped to the Stripper/Rectifier Column. A partial stream of vapours from the Column are condensed in condenser and sent back to the column as reflux. Rest of the vapors are passed through a super-heater and taken to the Mol Sieve Units for dehydration. The vapor through a bed of molecular sieve beads and water in the in coming vapor stream is adsorbed on the molecular sieve material and anhydrous ethanol vapor exist from the Mol Sieve Unit.
Hot anhydrous ethanol vapor form the Mol Sieve Units is condensed in the Mol Sieve Condenser. The anhydrous ethanol product is then further cooled down in the product cooler, to bring it close to the ambient temperature. The two Mol Sieve Units operate sequentially and are cycled so that one is under regeneration while the other is under operation, adsorbing water from the vapor stream. The regeneration is accomplished by applying vacuum to the bed undergoing regeneration. The
adsorbed water from the molecular sieve material desorbs and evaporates into the ethanol vapor stream. This mixture of ethanol and water is condensed and cooled against cooling tower (water in the Mol Sieve Regenerant Condenser) Any uncondensed vapour and entrained liquid leaving the Mold Sieve Regenerant Condenser enters the Mol Sieve Regenerant Drum, where it is contacted with cooled regenerant liquid . The cooled regenerant liquid is weak in ethanol concentration, as it contains all the water desorbed from the Molecular Sieve Beds. This low strength liquid is recycled back to the Stripper /Rectifier Column for recovering the ethanol. The water leaves from the bottom of the column and contains only traces of alcohol.

Minimum Labour.
Stable Operation.
Near theoretical recovery;
Stream Consumption minimized by multi-stage preheating to permit substantial heat recovery and reuse.
An advanced control system, developed through years of experience, to provide sustained, stable, automatic operation.
Consistent excellent product quality maintained.
Control System:-
To provide continuous stable and efficient plant operation we propose electronic instruments and a central PLC based Control System. All field sensors will be electronic and from reputed international brands. The control action will be provided through pneumatically controlled valves. All critical parameters will be constantly monitored by the system and required control action will be automatically decided on basis of programmed algorithms. Proven systems developed in Plants will be utilized in the design.
Details of Plant and Machinery enclosed. Refer Annexure
Various process parameters like Pressure, Temperature, Level, Flow etc. are sensed by the transmitters. The transmitters will send the proportional signal to the Programmable logic Controller (PLC). These signals are wired to the Input Channels of the PLC. PLC is interfaced with computer through a special data cable. PC will access all the data in the PLC and display it in the user friendly SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data acquisition) software. The outputs from the PLC derived from the control loops are wired to the respective control valves.
This is a project investment profile prepared by MML for 100 KLPD Anhydrous Alcohol (99.5%) production capacity plant:
1. Design Basis:
1.1 Capacity : 100,000 Litres/Day of Anhydrous Alchohol (99.5% v/v)
1.2 Feed 1,06,000 Litres/Day Rectified Spirit ( 95% v/v) per IS Standard.
1.3 Storagae 10 Days storage for RS 15 Days storage for Anhydrous Alcohol
1.4 Overall process Block Diagram: Enclosed


The total requirement of Manpower for a project of 100 KLPD fuel Ethanol plant will be as follow:

Qualified & Experienced Engineers:

Managaer 1

Astt. Manager 1

Section Heads 6 (Production, Electrical, Mechanical, Instrument, Environment & Civil)

Qualified & Experienced Chemist:-

Shift Incharge 4

Chemists 18

Skilled workers:-

Skilled Workers 20 (Mechanics, Electricians, Instrument Technician)

Unskilled workrs 10


Time Office and Security 20

Total no. of persons employed directly or indirectly may be around 400 Persons.

Environment Protection and Effluent Management

Environmental control is primarily driven by Government Legislation and the resulting regulations at the state and national levels. These have evolved out of public consensus, that the real cost of environmental protection are work the tangible and intangible benefits. To address this growing awareness the design of the fuel ethanol plant have been finalized with the concept of cleaner technology with a maximum of recovery and recycle of effluent thereby minimizing the effluent generation itself.

The liquid effluent called distillery spent wash is acidic in nature and brownish color, if let out will adversely affect the aquatic and organic life, thereby endangering the environment. The distillery spent wash generation will be about 1200 m3 per day. The characteristics of spent wash are given below;

Composition of Distillery Spent Wash Appendix No.
Spent wash characteristics from different manufacturing process are enclosed Color Dark brown.
Odor Smell of burnt sugar.
Temperature 90-95 Degree CPH
PH 4.5- 5.4
BOD5, 20 Degree C mg/l 35,000 – 45,000
COD, mg/l 65,000- 95,000
Total solids, mg/l 52,000 – 100,000
Suspended solids, mg/l 2,000 –14,000
Total volatile solids, mg/l 40,000- 60,000
Total dissolved solids,(inorganic) mg/l 12,000 –26,000
Total nitrogen (N), mg/l 1,000 –1,200
Total phosphorus (P) mg/l 260-390
Sodium mg/l 150-200
Potassium, mg/l 8,000-10,000
Calcium (Cal), mg/l 500-600
Iron (Fe), mg/l 50-80
Sulphate, mg/l 2,000 –5,000
Chloride, mg/l 5,000- 6,000

In case of continuous fermentation distilleries, yeast is recycled in the process and de-yeasted wash in distilled and spent wash does not contain yeast. The huge mass of effluent with highly objectionable organic matter renders in unfit for direct discharge on land for irrigation as well as in river or streams. Very bad smell is emitted by decomposition of spent wash causing atmospheric pollution. A full fledged series of treatment process for treating the distillery spent wash to make it fit for discharge as per the statutory norms will be part of the project.

The spent wash of distillery can be looked upon as a source of energy because of its high calorific value. In case of distillery spent wash emphasis has been to generate energy through is treatment of Anaerobic digestion and recovery of methane gas and production of manure by composting.

Anaerobic Digestion :

The anaerobic digestion process consists of three successive steps.
Hydrolysis- organic polymers are hydrolyzed to their individual monomers by enzymatic reaction. Acid fermentation- Intracellular conversion of hydrolyzed compounds to simple compound such as fatty; acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia by acidogenic bacteria. Methane fermentation- the simple compound are converted to methane and Co2 by a group of strictly anaerobic bacteria. The methane bacteria of different ranges of temperature can be used.

Thermophillic :50 to 65 Degree C
Mesophyllic :20 to 43.5 Degree C
Psychrophyllic :less than 20 Degree C

The first two kinds are used for industrial application.

The biogas from the digester has a calorific value of 4,500 to 5,000 This gas can be burnt in boiler for raising steam.It would be seen that a project for methane generation from spent wash is no doubt an attractive proposal for generation of energy but as far as elimination of pollution hazard is considered it does not offer complete solution as the digester effluent contains 5,000 to 8,000 ppm BOD.

Composting of Spent Wash/Primary treated Spent Wash

Spent wash has good manorial value. the actrial trials of application of spent wash on land over a long period have proved that it can be upon a good source of fertilizer . The effluent is sprayed on heaps of press mud. Proportion of press mud to present wash is 1:2. Diesel tractor of excavator type is used to turn over the whole heap of press mud vinasse mixture for better mixing. Addition of cow dung will provide bacterial culture required for composting. The detention time for composting is 3 days in the pit and 30 days for heaps pilled up outside the pits. The composting pits have a size of 30 M x 7M x 1 M depth. It holds good promise as economic and useful method for spent wash disposal.

M/s Fabcon Philippines Inc. Brixton street, Metro Manilla, Philippins have developed more efficient method of composting spent wash. The machine developed by them is known as Aerotiller. It straddles wind row of press mud 3.5 base by 1.25 M. height in the process of aerotilling. It has capacity to handle 1000 tonnes/hr. composting material. The press mud and spent wash are mixed in the proportion of 1:2 Special bacterial culture Fabcon No. 110/120 serves as a starter booster for composting. Aerotiller assures complete control of trhe decomposition process where the crucial balance of adequate aeration, moisture content and temperature must be controlled in order to keep microbial activity at accelerated phase. Steam can be observed on the height of decomposition process every time the aerotiller is passed over the row killing pathogenic bacteria. It facilitates high seed grinding and aeration. The composted material contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and all 13 essential elements. Organic matter content ranges from 40 to 60%. The fuel consumption of aerotiller is 40 to 50 litres /hr. Its connected load is 225 HP.\

The Bioearth Humus resuscitates the badly depleted microorganism population of the soil. It protects the inorganic nutrients. High temperature of 6 to 70 Degree C during decomposition process assumes he elimination of disease carrying organisms. It has improvised nutrient and water holding capacity for sandy soils. The compost is dry and free flowing and therefore lends itself to large-scale mechanical handling. This technology is being obtained by M/s Alfa Laval, Pune. The investment required for ordinary composting and excavators type tractor is about Rs.35 Lakhs The bio-earth system would cost Rs.50 Lakhs.

The composting system appears to be more suitable to Indian conditions. It does not require high investments.

Distillery Effluent will be treated in a Primary Treatment Plant generating Biogas which will be utilized as “Fuel” in the Boiler and the Primary Treated Effluent will be utilized for production of “Oranic Manure” using Sugar Mill Press Mud (Bio-composting). Part of the treated effluent will be utilized with suitable dilution as Liquid Manure for the Agricultural operations. The above treatment systems proposed will also meet the statutory requirements of zero discharge of effluent.

Details of the Bio-methanation Plant :-

It is proposed to go for the low rate digester technology of bio-methanation with hydraulic retention time of 28 days in the Bio-methanation technology ADI/BVF developed by ADI International of Canada and supplied in India by UEM Delhi.

The major part of the process plant is an RCC tank of about 50 mtrs x 100 mtrs x 6 mtrs. Partly constructed below the ground based on the soil condition at the project site as the biodigestor with a floating membrane cover fabricated out of imported multi layer membrane of different polymers with internal recirculation using high capacity screw pumps, submergible slow seed mixers and Bio-gas collection system.

Spent wash from the distillery gets cooled down to 38.c initially in natural cooling ponds followed by PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) with cooling water as the cooling medium. The cooled spent wash get bio -degrated inside the digestor called Bulk Volume Fermenter (BVF) by the acid forming and methane forming bacteria seeded from cow dung and developed in advance with buffering by suitable alkaline medium such as soda ash or caustic soda.

The anaerobic digestion generates bio-gas containing 50 to 55% methane balance carbon-di-oxide and the outlet effluent comes out through the built in gas liquid solid separators (GLSS). The Bio-gas generated will be drawn using suitable blowers to the boiler as the fuel.
Effluent coming out will be utilized for the organic manure production (Bio-compost). Biocomposting is a solid fermentation process using sugar mill press mud distillery yeast sludge and Distillery. ETP sludge etc; using a special group of Aerobic Bacteria. Large impervious surface area is required to spread the press mud in the form of windrows over that distillery effluent mixed with bacterial enaculum will be sprayed using a mechanical dispensing system and churning of the windrows using an aerotriller. All solid handing at the site will be done using JCB, tractor Dozzers, Tippers etc. There will be a leachate collection system all around the biocomposting yard for collection and pumping back any spillage wash out etc;

Composting is a 30 to 40 days operation and the product organic manure will be sold after bagging to the farmers.
There are different treatment and disposal alternatives available. Options that can be used for the management of the waste water are:
1. Biomethanation and secondary treatment followed by irrigation .
2. Biomethanation and secondary treament followed by Irrigation and disposal in surface water.
3. Bio-Composting of 1/3 effluent after Biomethanation and 2/3 for secondary treatment. 1/2 of 2/3 effluent for controlled land application after aeration and balance 1/2 for further aeration and then to dispose to surface water.
4. 1/3 effluent to be Concentrated and incinerated and 2/3 effluent to be taken for Biomethanation. After Biomethanation effluent to be aerated for land application and discharge to surface water.
5. Solution of this is to be given by our consultants after considering all type of permutation and combination after economical considerations.


India is the largest producer of sugar in the World with over 4 million hectares of land on sugar cultivation, over 300million tons of sugar cane production and 180 million tons going to sugar factories, and over 18 million tons of sugar production.

With sugarcane output touching 300 million tones, the surplus molasses after the projected domestic Consumption of 1240 million liters ( for alcohol and chemical industries) will be about 700 million liters for use as fuel.

The blending of ethanol in petrol and diesel vehicles is well proven in the USA, Europe and Brazil, where 70% of the total ethanol production is used as motor fuel. 10% fuel ethanol blend with petrol is in use without any modification in the petrol driven vehicles.

In India, the Bureau of Indian Standards has specified the use of ethanol up to 10% in petrol blend in vehicles without incorporating any engine modification. Limited experiments and trials by certain academic Institutions also suggest ethanol acceptability up to 20% in petrol vehicles and without causing major modifications to the engines.

The Government of India took a decision during December, 2001 on the ethanol blending to an extent of 5%.

With the rising prices of crude and growing demand for fuels, India will be spending over Rs.655,000 crore on imports of crude and petroleum products. In such circumstances, the possibility of using Ethanol as fuel in the country has evoked considerable interest. The performance of the sugar and distillery industry based on 1999-2000 season is as follows: ( All values are in million tonne/litre).

No.of Cane Sugar Molasses Ethanol
436 185 18 8 1700

Molasses Production in 2001-2002 8.1 million tones
Yield of ethanol from molasses 2000 million litres
Ethanol consumption for alcohol 1240 million litres
Based Industries.
Surplus of ethanol for use as fuel 760 million litres.

Thus, from the above table it clearly indicates the potential available for the ethanol as a fuel. As per the latest available estimates, the five percent blending of petrol could create a potential of 400 million litres per annum and in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi etcthe demand for the production could be 500 million litres.

Potential for Export

The fossil fuel availability is finite and the renewable sources of energy are going to be a rule rather than an exception. This will make upside down the usage of petroleum products and usher in the demand for fuel ethanol in India and Abroad. The corresponding developments in introduction of flexible fuel vehicles and alternate sources of ethanol manufacture using agro based raw materials will fuel the demand for fuel ethanol to astronomical heights.

Central Government Decision on Ethanol & Petrol Blend:

In a far-reaching decision to save foreign exchange and to boost the prospects of the worrying Sugar sector industry, the Govt. has announced during December, 2001, to blend ethanol with Petrol about 5% for sale and to implement the above in two phase.
Following are the issues, which could be considered for the short
Term and long term implementation.

Implementation Strategies

Stage I

All the vehicles driven by petrol can make use of Gasohol (an admixture of petrol 90% and alcohol 10% with minor modification in the carburetors and without any modification in the engines. All the vehicles driven by diesel can be converted to use bio-fuel system viz. diesel and alcohol to bring down the consumption of diesel by 45%.

Stage II

Introduction of flexible fuel vehicles (FFV) based on gasohol with 76% petrol and 24% absolute alcohol. If for any reason shortage of alcohol is observed, the vehicle can run of 100% petroleum fuel. Introduction of flexible fuel vehicles, which can run on 100% alcohol ( Most favoured system) an ideal one. When these recommendations are accepted and implemented, the country can manage the demand for fuel for automobiles with the domestic availability of petroleum products and domestic supply of alcohol. The country can manage without import of petroleum products.

While the existing surplus capacity of the distilleries could be used to produce anhydrous alcohol, efforts are to be made to study in detail the production of alcohol from sugar juice, as this would drastically improve the supply of fuel ethanol. However, the technology and its financials are to be worked out.

Efforts are also to be made to study the details of producing ethanol from other sources like agro wastes and even municipal solid wastes.

Govt. has also to streamline the supply chain aspects of ethanol, while relevant standards are to be made on the specifications quality of molasses, RS and fuel ethanol, storage and handling aspects of ethanol, both RS and anhydrous, are also to be studied in detail.

The oil companies have taken a policy decision to blend ethanol with petrol at a regional blending units at the major consuming centers where all the infrastructure is already in place.

The tankers carrying petroleum products can be used for carrying ethanol and no special facility is needed for loading or unloading.


The fuel ethanol project requires clearance from the Secretariat of Industrial Approval (SIA) under the Ministry of Industries.
I submit application to the Government of Uttar Pradesh for Commitment on Molasses possessions from the State Government and the same is awaited.

The Fuel ethanol project requires approval from the Uttar Pradesh Pollution control Board for which necessary application have been submitted and the No Objection Ccertificate (NOC) is awaited. After obtaining the same I have to make the necessary application to the Ministry of Environment and Forest for necessary environmental Clearance.

I have to obtain statutory clearances from the Local Panchayat Kosi, Factory Inspector at Kosi and from the Fire Service Department Kosi.

The possession movement and utilization of Molasses and the processing of Molasses into Ethanol through Distillation process are brought under the Supervision Control and Regulation by the Department of Prohibition and Excise, Government of Uttar Pradesh.


Thus, the above positive action from the Government would encourage efforts in increasing the use of Ethanol for blending and for efficient use of the entire quantity of molasses currently being produced. The increased return to the units would help the sugar cane farmers with stable and assured payments. At the present consumption levels in India, ethanol doping of Petrol would result in surplus petrol of around 3,50,000 Tonnes/annum. Already the refineries, by adopting suitable technical up gradation at the refinery facility, their surplus petrol are exported as Naphtha hence this surplus would not be a problem for the Refineries.

This could improve the pollution level in such a way that Ethanol as a blend in fuel could replace the other additives in petrol like MTBS and oxygenate, which are known to be carcinogenic. Also in terms of national energy security, this indigenous and renewable fuel holds significant benefits.

The constant engine size, equal rate of fuel consumption is assured to that of gasoline/petrol. Power is available from an engine designed for alcohol. Since Nitrogen Oxides emitted by internal combustion engines originate from air being heated in the combustion chambers, the low temperature of ethanol flame will result in very low level of pollution. As the exhaust temperature is loser, smaller cooling system can be used. Burning of ethanol forms no soot or carbon; carbon buildup in an engine is eliminated. The odor is not unpleasant and a spill of this fuel would do only minor damage to environment.
Unlike petrol, ethanol is a pure chemical, which does not evaporate from storage as easily as petrol and is unlikely to caused vapor lock of the fuel system. Fire with ethanol does not start as easily as do petrol fires because alcohols o no contain lighter hydrocarbon fractions. Besides, small alcohol fires can be extinguished using water.
Emission reduction in ethanol driven vehicles reported are 5-10%
Ethanol as oxygenator-
13% reduction in CO
3% in NO2
11% in SO2
4% in CO2
9% in PM

Advantages of alcohol fuel:-

- Reduce Carbon-monoxide emission by 30%
- Reduce smog (Urban Ozone) formation by 6.3%
- Eliminate lead compound emissions which are harmful to human body and are carcinogenic ( cancer causing)
- Eliminate aromatic emissions

Benefits of Agro-Sector :-

- Renewal resource since sugarcane is agricultural product
- Ultimate benefits to farmers
- Benefits to Industrial sector:
o Refineries can utilize excess crude for production of other petro-chemicals.
o No need to use/install costly catalytic convertor for vehicles.
Benefits to Finance Sector:-

- Savings in crude oil import bill
- Saving in imported anti-knocking agents such as tetra-ethyl lead and oxygenating agents like MTBE and ETBE
- Absorbing fluctuations in oil prizes in International market, hence less impact on import bill.
- Capital intensive investment for MTBE AND ETBE is not required.

Technical merits over other anti-knocking and oxygenating agents:-

Easily miscible with petrol
Non toxic has high flash point and calorific value
Higher octane rating, can be used as on effective anti- knocking agent.

Technical merits over other anti-knocking & oxygenating agents:-

Low latent heat of vaporisation, hence no cold start problems
Uniform composition along with clean combustion characteristics products less carbon deposits in engines.
High oxygen content, thereby reducing carbon mono dioxide emission and urban ozone formation.


The implementation of fuel Ethanol Project is planned along with 20 MW Bio-mass based power is to ensure the project completion with the schedule, planning only for sixteen (16) months. A good planning, scheduling and monitoring program is imperative to complete the project on time and without cost over runs.

The project zero date starts once Industry gives the “Go Ahead” approval after the Financial Institution has indicated its willingness to fund the project.

Contract Strategy:-

The nature of the project calls for the division of the project into recognizably discrete plant areas with specific points that can stand alone for engineering and contract purposes. An appropriate contract strategy involves, the decision on the number and the type of contracts to be let, vendor evaluation, formulation of contract agreement defining respective obligations, the basis of discharging them and remedies for default

The specifications for major equipment's the technical information on which is essential to the development of the plant design and in particular to the civil design, shall be drawn up at an early stage of the project. Program of design information submission, from the mechanical and electrical contracts, that satisfied the overall project schedule shall be drawn up, The most important amount such information and the location of the individual plants, floor loadings, support requirements etc. which are required for the civil design.

Since the project execution call for closer co-ordination among the contractors and proper contract co-ordination and monitoring procedures shall be formulated. Detailed bar charts or net works shall be made to plan and monitor the project progress. Contract drawings and documents requiring approval from statutory authorities like Factory Inspector, Chief Electrical Inspector, Pollution Control Board, etc. shall be clearly identified and scheduled so that the procedural formalities do not affect the project progress.

Project Team:-

The successful and timely implementation of the project and the avoidance of over spending and frustration depend on the performance of the project team:

The responsibilities of this project team shall be :-

Plan and program all the work and resources required for the project completion.

Design the plant and the plant support systems.

Place contracts with the manufacturers and contractors to Procure plant and machinery and services at the right time of the right quality and at an economical price.

Organize the construction and commissioning of the plant by progressively integrating individual systems.
Monitor and control and the project progress with regular interactions and co-ordination.

Ensure cost control to contain the project cost within the planned budget.

Since the project is to be executed in a short time, it is important that the area identified for the plant is cleared for the early start of the civil work. The soil investigation and site gracing shall be take up in the very beginning so that the civil work can proceed without any hindrance. The site development shall include the laying of the approach roads, identifying or constructing adequate storage space, providing lighting in the work area etc.

All the major civil work shall have to be planned in the non-monsoon period. It is essential that before the Zero date of the project all the clearances from Govt. Bodies like the Pollution Control Board, Electricity Board , etc. are obtained. Above all the management should make adequate uninterrupted fund flow available for the execution of the project.

The Construction Phase

This is the critical phase of the project where work progresses in almost all the fronts. The erection and commissioning phase of all contracts proceed simultaneously and it is important to ensure that the various contract have adequate facilities and are established on the site in time to meet their programmed commitments. Adequate power and water shall be made available for the construction.

The construction manager form the plant side takes the overall responsibilities of the site. The construction team’s key task is to continuously monitor the site progress against the agreed program, and to initiate whatever corrective action is necessary to maintain satisfactory site progress during the execution stage of the project at site, quite a few of the various contracts progress simultaneously are interrelated, and hence, the delay in the activities of one contractor will invariably affect the progress of the other contractors and ultimately the project progress. This aspect emphasized the importance of progress review, project monitoring and timely remedial measures, for the smooth a nd “within the budget” execution of the project.

Certain basic responsibilities of the construction management are:

a) The contractors shall be encouraged to give the earliest possible waning of actual or potential difficulties.
b) Ensure that the senior management in the contractors” organisation are made aware of the serious problems at an early date.
c) Provide a focus for early discussion of any potential problem are possible remedial measures, while clearly maintaining the contractor’s responsibility for recovering delays.

d) Help to foster as climate among all concerned that no extension of site deliveries and erection schedule are allowable.

A fortnightly progress review meeting is held with each contractor where formal reports are tabled, giving an agreed progress statement. From these agreed progress statements, an accurate prediction of the state of the project is available which helps the construction team to adjust, if necessary, the activities of the particular contractor , and also the activities of any affected contractor.
Plant Commissioning
The commissioning phase in a project is the one where he design manufacturing, erection and quality assurance expertise are put to test. The commissioning team for each plant will consist of representatives from the contractor and MML. It is essential to associate the staff identified to operate the plant in the commissioning stage itself.
When construction work is complete, the check lists, designed to ensure that the plant has been properly installed and appropriate safety measures have been taken are gone through and all the documentation pertaining to the statutory inspection and approvals are presented, the commissioning team shall take over. The commissioning team will follow scrupulously the commissioning and operating instructions laid down by the plant/equipment manufacturer supplier, to prove that the plant/equipment is, in every respect, fit for service. The plant shall be subjected to a performance test, after the stipulated trial operation and the reliability run. After the successful completion of the performance test the plant will be taken over by the operating staff.
Project Schedule:-
This schedule envisages the project commissioning in sixteen (16) months from the Zero date of the project. In the schedule the project is divided into three major categories like
mechanical and
electrical, and,
these categories are then sub-divided into major identifiable contracts.

For each of the contract, the schedule identified the following applicable activities:

a) Basic duty
b) Receipt of offers, evaluation, discussions and Letter of Indent Placement
c) Entering into Detailed Agreement to execute the project
d) Manufacturing and delivery
e) Erection and other work at site
f) Commissioning, trial run and testing.

Once the project gets started, it is essential that a more detailed bar or net work chart is prepared incorporating all the contracts and the activities
so that the planning and the monitoring is effective done.


Total Area of the Plot 960 Acres

Name of Industrial Area Salamepur Industrial Area

Estimated Cost of the project 70.00 Crores

Estimated employment generation 400 nos

Proposed layout plan of land indicating Details given in the project report
open area required and its covered area

Details of proposed investments on land

On Plant and Machinery

Industrial Effluent measures:                       Adequate treatment plant is proposed

Power Requirement in KW:                        We will put our own cogeneration

No. of telephone connections required :           10 Lines

Jaipal Singh Datta